It is now understood that steroids can act on the cell membrane to bring about various second messenger effects. These second messenger pathways involve kinase pathways driven by classical receptors (MAPk, ERK, MEK, etc), as well as cyclic AMP, lipase and other kinase pathways (PI3K, PKA, PKC, etc), including ion fluxes (Ca++), which are driven by atypical receptors. All in all, steroids affect cells through several different pathways and at least one atypical steroid receptor, none of which involve what most people consider the true “intracellular” mechanism of steroid action.
The Female Panel of five hormones may highlight imbalances that can contribute to a number of different health conditions. Low levels of estrogens may contribute to bone loss, fatigue, heart disease, hot flashes, sleep disturbances, vaginal dryness and depression. Low testosterone may also contribute to bone loss, depression, fatigue, heart disease and vaginal dryness. High estrogens or low progesterone may be a factor in anxiety symptoms, weight gain and breast cancer risk. Fatigue often accompanies hormone imbalance and is frequently observed in postmenopausal women. Hormone imbalance may also be a feature of metabolic syndrome.