Vitamin D is a secosteroid with an endocrine mechanism of action which is sequentially synthesized in humans in the skin, liver and kidneys. The active hormone, 1alpha,25-dihydrocholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D3], is often considered only in terms of its role in controlling calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. However, cumulative evidence points to the presence of vitamin D receptors in many tissues. The present article summarizes key points regarding the participation of vitamin D in pregnancy and breastfeeding. During pregnancy, sufficient vitamin D concentrations are needed not only to address the growing demand for calcium on the part of the fetus, but also to participate in fetal growth, development of the nervous system, lung maturation and fetal immune system function. Hypovitaminosis D has been related to the development of diabetes, pre-eclampsia and fetal neurological disorders. During pregnancy and lactation, calcium from the maternal skeleton is mobilized, with a rise in bone turnover and a reduction in bone mass. It is advisable for pregnant and nursing women to maintain adequate levels of vitamin D, through small doses of solar exposure to facilitate natural formation of the hormone or by ingesting appropriate vitamin supplements. Further studies are needed to clarify the many gaps in knowledge and elucidate the role of vitamin D in the context of reproduction. Confirmation of experimental observations relating to the risks of hypovitaminosis D would have important public health implications.
This type of vitamins is a type of fat-soluble secosteroids. Vitamin D in addition to helping the body absorb calcium also helps the body keep the right amount of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. A Vitamin D deficiency in the body can cause rickets which is most commonly seen in children. It could also lead to a condition known as osteoporosis in adults. There is also a lot of ongoing research regarding D3 vitamin for depression as well as other D3 vitamin benefits. An excess of vitamin D is known to cause high levels of calcium in the blood resulting in calcium deposits in sensitive organs such as the heart and lungs. This is one of the main vitamin D3 side effects and is generally the result of an excessive intake of Vitamin D supplements and not through dietary choices. It is important that a person suffering from vitamin D side effects receive immediate treatment to prevent further complications. D3 vitamin deficiency reduces the amount of calcium and phosphorous that is absorbed by the body and so it is important that children and young adults receive adequate amounts of this vitamin.
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